Claude D. Pepper Older Americans Independence Center

Kenneth Covinsky M.D., M.P.H.
Principal Investigator
  415-221-4810 x 24363
Michael Steinman, MD
Co-Principal Investigator
  415-221-4810 ext. 23677
Landon Haller
Program Administrator

Established in 2013, the UCSF Claude D. Pepper Older Americans Independence Center focuses on addressing predictors, outcomes, and amelioration of late-life disability in vulnerable populations. Late-life disability, defined as needing help with daily activities, is common, burdensome, and costly to patients, families, and society. Late-life disability is influenced by medical vulnerabilities (including comorbid illnesses, aspects of medical care, medicines, procedures, neuropsychiatric conditions, and behaviors), social vulnerabilities (social supports, financial resources, communication and literacy, and ethnicity), and their interaction. The overriding goal of the UCSF OAIC is to improve the health care and quality of life of vulnerable older adults with or at risk for disability through the following aims:

  1. Catalyze research on disability in vulnerable older persons at UCSF by serving as a hub that brings together scholars and leverages resources
  2. Provide tangible, high-value support to funded projects at UCSF that stimulates new research on disability, and leads to new research opportunities for senior and junior investigators
  3. Support pilot studies that accelerate gerontologic science and lead to research funding in late life disability
  4. Identify the future leaders of geriatrics research and support them with career development funding and exceptional mentoring
  5. Develop a leadership and administrative structure that spurs interdisciplinary collaboration, making the OAIC greater than the sum of its parts

Our Center supports researchers who share our passion for improving the well-being of older persons. We view our resources as venture capital that will catalyze the careers and research paths of investigators who will do cutting edge research that advances the care, health, and wellbeing of older persons, both within the UCSF community and nationally.

Leadership and Administrative Core (LAC)
Leader 1:    Ken Covinsky, MD, MPH
Leader 2:    Michael Steinman, MD
The Leadership Administrative Core (LAC) plays the central role in coordinating the five UCSF OAIC cores, in maintaining communication across programs, and identifying new opportunities, both within and outside the OAIC. The LAC monitors the success of each core based on tangible metrics of productivity: Research leading to publications in the highest impact journals and new NIH grant funding. The LAC monitors, stimulates, evaluates, remediates, and reports progress toward the goals of the OAIC. The LAC also maintains the substantial collaborations with other UCSF research centers, including the UCSF CTSI and RCMAR, and seeks to establish new collaborations which will leverage OAIC resources and develop new and established investigators in aging research. The overall goal of the LAC is to provide the leadership and administration to support the activities of the entire UCSF OAIC.

Research Education Component (REC)
Leader 1:    Louise Walter, MD
Leader 2:    Kristine Yaffe, MD
The Research Education Component (REC) identifies, supports, and nurtures talented junior investigators who will become national leaders in aging research through the REC Scholars Program and Advanced Scholars Program. The REC Scholars Program targets early career faculty and seeks to accelerate their path towards NIA K awards. The Advanced Scholars Program targets current K award recipients and accelerates the path towards their first R01. Both programs provide extensive mentoring and opportunities to participate in an innovative series of seminars designed to develop skills essential to success in aging research, facilitate interdisciplinary communication, build knowledge and relationships that will stimulate translation between basic and clinical research, and accelerate their productivity. The REC leadership also works with leaders of the Resource Cores to provide scholars access to additional support. These mentorship and curricular programs help junior investigators progress along the pathways that lead to high impact publications and grant funding that develops the scholar’s national reputation as a leader in their area. Mentoring services, seminar series, resource core services, and programmatic support are also available to Associate Scholars whose goals are to develop careers in aging research. A particular focus of the Associate Scholars Program is junior faculty who have trained outside of geriatric medicine, but seek to incorporate Geriatric principles into their developing research program. The Research Education Component also sponsors a diversity supplement program to increase the number of faculty members from underrepresented and diverse backgrounds conducting aging research at UCSF.

Pilot and Exploratory Studies Core (PESC)
Leader 1:    Alex Smith, MD, MS, MPH
Leader 2:    Sei Lee, MD
The Pilot and Exploratory Studies Core (PESC) facilitates the development and progress of innovative research relating to the Pepper Center focus on the predictors, outcomes and outcomes of late-life disability, especially in vulnerable older populations. We are especially interested in the interaction of serious clinical conditions, disability, and social disadvantage. The goals of the PESC include: 1) Solicit and select innovative proposals from highly qualified applicants; 2) Provide investigators of PESC studies with the support and infrastructure of the OAIC Cores; 3) Integrate PESC studies and investigators with resources from the UCSF Clinical and Translational Science Institute (CTSI) and other relevant resources at UCSF; 4) Monitor the progress of PESC studies; and 5) Provide mentorship and resources to transform PESC funded studies into successful independently-funded projects. The PESC focuses on identifying projects from outstanding investigators who are conducting aging research that is likely to lead to external funding and is aligned with the OAIC theme.

Vulnerable Aging Recruitment and Retention Core (VARC)
Leader 1:    Rebecca Sudore, MD
Leader 2:    Krista Harrison
The Vulnerable Aging Recruitment and Retention Core (VARC) was established in the UCSF Pepper Center grant renewal application. It was developed in response to increased demand both within and outside UCSF to support research focused on improving the knowledge base regarding the needs of medically vulnerable (e.g., complex chronic disease, serious illness, profound cognitive or functional impairment) and/or socially vulnerable (e.g., isolated, impoverished, homeless, incarcerated, with limited literacy or limited English proficiency) older adults. Because these older adults are often particularly difficult to recruit and retain in clinical research, their representation in research is often limited. This impairs our knowledge about how to optimize their care. Therefore, the VARC core focuses on supporting OAIC-affiliated investigators to (1) recruit, enroll, and retain vulnerable older adults in research; (2) use appropriate measures to study their healthcare needs; and (3) engage communities in research about medically and/or socially vulnerable older adults.

Data and Analysis Core (DAC)
Leader 1:    Mike Steinman, MD
Leader 2:    John Boscardin, PhD
The Data and Analysis Core (DAC) provides OAIC investigators access to statistical services at all stages of the research lifecycle. Through the establishment of a central hub of statistical expertise, the DAC ensures smooth delivery of statistical knowledge and rigor across the spectrum of scientific research at the OAIC. This improves the quality of OAIC research studies, helps nurture trainees, facilitates interdisciplinary research groups, and ultimately enhances research on prediction, outcomes, and amelioration of late-life disability, especially in vulnerable populations. The DAC promotes wider use of state of the art statistical practice, lowers barriers of access to basic statistical services to all research groups including trainees, provides access to specialized statistical resources (such as state of the art prognostic model development, complex longitudinal and latent class analysis, and causal inference methods), and develops statistical procedures targeted to solving problems in aging research, and more specifically to challenges that commonly arise in research on disability and function.

REC Scholar, Research & Grants Funded During Pepper Supported Time Years /
Kenneth Lam, MD
Assistant Professor, Geriatrics / UCSF OAIC
Aging in place: a study of regional variation in risk-adjusted mean home time after hospitalization in older adults
“Aging in place” is the term used to describe the preference of older persons to remain independent and in communities of their own choosing as they get older. The surge of nursing home deaths during the pandemic has made aging in place an increasing priority, but the lack of robust objective methods to quantify aging in place makes it impossible to systematically improve efforts to support it. Aging in place is threatened by health crises and disability, and these threats often culminate with hospitalization. Regional variability in post-acute care utilization suggests it may be easier to age in place in some places compared to others, but measures counting days in one setting only (e.g., long-term care) fail to capture aging in place from the patient’s perspective. Harder still is determining how much lost home time is inevitable. For his project, Dr. Lam worked to identify adults over the age of 65 hospitalized in 2017 using a 5% Medicare sample to advance how to measure and use home time and how it may be applied to policies to help older adults stay independent in the face of disability while also reduce Medicare and Medicaid costs.
2021-2023 /
5 (total)
3 (1st/Sr)
Jennifer James, PhD, MSW, MSSP
Assistant Professor, Medicine / UCSF
Centering incarcerated older adults in research
  • NIA Diversity Supplement
  • Greenwall Scholar

2022-2023 /
4 (total)
2 (1st/Sr)
Anoop Sheshadri, MD, MS
Assistant Professor, Nephrology / UCSF
Understanding Depression, Anxiety, and Caregiver Burden in Exercise Interventions among Older Patients Awaiting Kidney Transplantation
  • KL2
  • RAP

2022-2023 /
2 (total)
1 (1st/Sr)

Past Scholars
Lindsey Hampson, MD, UCSF (2019-2020)
Elizabeth (Liz) Whitlock, MD, MS, UCSF (2019-2020)
Lauren Hunt, PhD, RN, FNP, UCSF (2019-2020)
Ashwin Kotwal, MD, UCSF (2019-2021)
Sachin Shah, MD, MPH, UCSF (2019-2020)
Scott Bauer, MD, MS, UCSF (2019-2020)
Willa Brenowitz, PhD, MPH, UCSF (2019-2020)
Sarah Nouri, MD, MPH, General Internal Medicine, UCSF (2020-2021)
Li-Wen Huang, MD , Division of Hematology/Oncology, UCSF (2020-2021)
James Iannuzzi, MD, MPH , Surgery, UCSF (2020-2021)
Tasce Bongiovanni, MD MPP, UCSF OAIC (2021-2022)
Matt Miller, PT, PhD, UCSF OAIC (2021-2022)

1. Project Title: Exploring the preferences and values of older adults with limited English proficiency during the hospital to Skilled Nursing Facility (SNF) care transition
  Leader: James Harrison, MPH, PhD
  Transition care planning remains persistently medicalized, failing to be guided by patients’ own preferences for their recovery, and does not incorporate elements that support preferences related to independence, returning home and function, or factors that allow participation in family or community activities that provide a foundation for personal purpose, creativity or fun. Most studies to improve care transitions have focused on discharges to home, and few in comparison have studied the quality of SNF transitions and have not engaged diverse older adults with limited English proficiency (LEP) during this process. For some LEP patients, in addition to language barriers, communication around preferences and values are further complicated by a lack of trust in healthcare providers, perceived racism and differing views on autonomy and decision-making. Mismatched expectations and poorly communicated care plans can not only contribute to adverse clinical outcomes but also compromise trust between patients and clinicians, impair satisfaction, and lead to delivery of care that is discordant with the preferences of patients and caregivers. Although it is often expected that individual clinicians be responsible for optimal care transitions, it is arguably more effective for high quality transitions to be the shared responsibility of all stakeholders -patients, caregivers, hospitals, and SNFs. The aim of Dr. Harrison’s PESC study is to explore how patients with limited English Proficiency (LEP) and their caregivers anticipate and are prepared for a SNF discharge including how their preferences are incorporated into transition plans. Specifically, thisstudy will extend a grounded theory qualitative study that he is conducting as part of his National Institute of Aging (NIA) K01 by supporting the inclusion of older adults with LEP who speak Spanish, Cantonese and Russian. Data generated will then directly inform other elements of my work including the development and pilot implementation of a SNF Preparation Tool. Progress to date includes creating a stakeholder informed study protocol and interview guide, a recruitment approach and implementation plan. Interviews are about to commence at the San Francisco Campus for Jewish Living. Interviews were delayed due to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic including new variants.
2. Project Title: Opioid Prescribing Trends in Medicare Beneficiaries with Dementia before and after the 2016 CDC Guidelines for Chronic Pain
  Leader: Ulrike Muench, RN, PhD, FAAN
  Since the peak of the opioid epidemic in 2012, prescription opioids have substantially decreased. One event that contributed to the reduction in opioid use was the release of the CDC guidelines on the management of chronic pain in 2016. The guidelines recommended the daily dose of morphine milligram equivalents (MME) to stay below 50 MME/day, to weigh the benefits and risks when increasing the daily dose to above 50 MME/day, and to increase to greater than 90MME/day only when it can be carefully justified. Research has found that since the release of the guideline clinicians have significantly reduced opioid prescriptions, as intended by the policy. However, evidence suggests that in some cases the recommendations were applied to patients with cancer pain, surgery, or acute sickle cell crises. In other cases, opioids were abruptly stopped or tapered, though mandated tapering is not supported by the guidelines. It has been suggested that the inappropriate reductions in opioid prescriptions are in part due to fear of scrutiny by law enforcement agencies such as the DEA, which registers prescribers of controlled substances and can obtain information about prescribing practices of most providers. Monitoring by state medical boards and state laws that mandate dose caps or reinforce the 90 MME threshold further contributed to prescribers reducing their MME. One study that interviewed providers reported that clinicians felt that the only way to protect themselves from liability was to stay rigidly at or below the CDC guideline’s 90 MME threshold and to disregard the emphasis on individualized patient care and respect for patient consent that are recognized within the guideline. The proposed study examines whether opioid use decreased systematically differently in persons with dementia (PWD) compared to persons without dementia (PWOD) following the 2016 CDC guidelines. Dr. Muench hypothesized that following the 2016 guidelines, providers disproportionally decreased opioids in PWD, a population at a disadvantage to advocate for the pain medications that they need. Through support from the Pepper Center, Dr. Muench was able to build on her analyses proposed to develop an R01 that examines opioid prescribing trends jointly with pain prevalence trends to test if individuals with ADRD no longer able to communicate are experiencing undertreatment of pain. Her hypothesis was that with increased scrutiny of prescription opioids in recent years providers may be more likely to decrease opioids in a population unable to articulate their pain needs. To this end, her long-term goal is to highlight and address potential disparities in pain treatment and provide important information for opioid prescribing guidelines concerning the management of chronic pain in people with ADRD.
3. Project Title: Post-Intensive Care Unit Outcomes and the Impact of Resilience in Older Adults with Pre-existing Geriatric Conditions
  Leader: Julien Cobert, MD
  For older patients admitted to the ICU, the presence of frailty, cognitive decline and disability are associated with higher mortality, worse long-term quality of life and accelerated post-discharge cognitive decline. These issues have received attention given the recognition of persistent physical, functional, psychological sequelae following critical illness –called post-intensive care syndrome (PICS) - which is particularly common in older adult survivors. When older patients face critical illness, the complex relationship between these geriatric conditions, the acute stress of critical illness, and the ICU environment places these vulnerable older adults at a higher risk for morbidity and mortality. ICU admission may result in prolonged immobility, malnutrition, swallowing dysfunction, polypharmacy and potentially burdensome invasive interventions. Critical illness itself is associated with a hyperinflammatory state which can decrease muscle mass and physical function. Lines and tubes tethering patients to beds, alarms and other noises, and lack of sunlight place many older adults at high risk of delirium and functional decline. These harms must be weighed against the potential benefits of ICU care in view of patient goals and expectations. A central goal in studying functional outcomes after critical illness is to identify pre-, intra-and post-ICU targets to mitigate functional decline or to help rehabilitate ICU patients and survivors. Most studies of functional impairment in ICU survivors emphasize factors associated with worse outcomes. Important studies in sepsis and acute respiratory distress syndrome showed that pre-illness cognitive impairment, frailty, and disability are associated with cognitive decline and self-rated health in survivors. However, , protective pre-ICU characteristics such as the capacity to navigate adversity or resilience have received little attention. The implications are important because psychological well-being, satisfaction and behavioral interventions are not directly incorporated into ICU treatment bundles despite evidence that higher levels of resilience buffer the impact of chronic illness on disability later in life. Resilience is also correlated with decreased neuropsychological impairment and better self-care in ICU survivors. Hence, there is a critical need to understand and identify modifiable traits that protect older adults who face critical illness from functional and cognitive decline. These could be targetable and potentially added to existing preventative and rehabilitative strategies in the ICU. In this study, Dr. Cobert seeks to first understand how pre-existing geriatric conditions impact clinical and functional outcomes and end-of-life care process measures for older adults who require an ICU admission. He will then quantify resilience using a validated measure to determine its impact on clinical and functional outcomes. His central hypothesis is that patients with pre-existing disability, frailty, multimorbidity or dementia have increased risk of short-and long-term morbidity and mortality, but certain outcomes may be mitigated by resilience. Through support from the Pepper Center, Dr. Cobert was able to build upon his prior work on trends of pre-ICU geriatric conditions, using a unique ICU cohort from the Health and Retirement Study to evaluate functional, behavioral, and cognitive impairments in older adults who have suffered a critical illness. This project enabled Dr. Cobert to complete analysis and publish his results on trends of pre-existing geriatric conditions in ICU patients using Medicare-linked Health & Retirement Study (HRS) data. This resulted in a publication in Chest (impact factor ~9.5). Dr. Cobert subsequently extended this work with ongoing data analyses to study whether resilience could mitigate post-ICU morbidity and mortality in older adults. In addition, Dr. Cobert plans to apply for R21 or R03 (and the equivalent I21 through the VA) during the 12-month award (November-December) and begin preparation for an R01 . Dr. Cobert intends for his future R01 to create novel electronic health records (EHR) measures of disability and geriatric conditions using natural language processing techniques. The R01 would be focused on the development of improved EHR tools which would allow for better data capture, better tools for patient recruitment for prospective studies, and more robust outcome measures. This future work would require a mixed methods approach to assess how to best design and validate the improved EHR tool.
4. Project Title: Biological signatures of neurodegeneration and aging associated with delirium in older adults following hip fracture surgery
  Leader: Sara LaHue, MD
  Identifying the shared mechanisms connecting delirium, cognitive impairment, and aging are of critical importance. Delirium is a life-threatening acute disturbance in mental status affecting more than 2.6 million hospitalized adults in the United States annually, with an estimated attributable cost of $16,303-$64,421 per case. Delirium is associated with functional dependence, new or accelerated cognitive decline, and death. Older adults and those with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), Alzheimer's Disease, or Alzheimer's Disease Related Dementias (AD/ADRD) are at highest risk for delirium. Once viewed as an inevitability for older adults, delirium is preventable in as many as 40% of cases using intensive clinical pathways. While delirium prevention efforts are critical, they fail to prevent 60% of cases. Insufficient knowledge of delirium pathophysiology dramatically hinders advances in personalized delirium risk assessment, prevention, and impedes the development of delirium treatments, which do not currently exist. The complex association between delirium, cognitive impairment, and advanced age is largely based on epidemiology rather than the identification of markers that may indicate biological mechanisms. Recently, there is growing evidence for plasma AD biomarkers, such as plasma phosphorylated tau at residue 181 (pTau181), demonstrated by Dr. Boxer’s lab to differentiate those with AD from healthy controls and those with other ADRD, such as frontotemporal lobar degeneration; as well as pTau217-19 and neurofilament light chain (NfL). While advanced age is a major risk factor for delirium and AD/ADRD, this is based on chronological age – the number of years alive. However, aging is increasingly understood to be driven by biological mechanisms that are more or less advanced in different individuals. The difference between this biological age and chronological age is “age acceleration,” which is associated with increased risk of disease, including AD. Dr. LaHue’s long-term goal is to become an independent clinician-investigator focused on identifying mechanisms of delirium and delirium-associated cognitive decline, and to apply this knowledge to develop targeted treatments for delirium. In order to address gaps in our understanding of the biological mechanisms of delirium, she proposes to apply novel markers of neurodegeneration and aging to delirium. These results will provide evidence of a pathophysiological basis for the observed association between delirium, cognitive impairment, and advanced age. This is the first application of plasma pTau181, pTau217 and age acceleration in delirious patients. The goal of this project is to identify whether elevated preoperative measures of pTau181, pTau217, NfL, and age acceleration (by way of DNA methylation) in blood, are associated with postoperative delirium in 100 older adults undergoing hip fracture surgery, in order to advance understanding of the pathologic drivers of delirium. Through achieving this goal, she aims to shed light on the pathological basis for the observed association between delirium, neurodegeneration and aging. Through her Pilot and Exploratory Studies Award, Dr. LaHue received support that was integral to her development as an Early-Stage Investigator at the intersection of neurology and geriatrics. The Pepper Center was able to provide not only mentorship but also research staffing support assist Dr. LaHue in executing her research. The work from this pilot study will provide the basis for a future career development award application to investigate how these markers of neurodegeneration and aging influence the trajectory of postoperative cognitive decline in older adults who develop delirium.
5. Project Title: Palliative Care for Non-English Speaking Gynecology Oncology Patients
  Leader: María de Fátima Reyes, MD
  In this retrospective cohort study, Dr. Reyes seeks to explore the current utilization of palliative care, especially as it relates to a patient’s primary language, and will elucidate barriers to palliative care referrals and effective palliation of symptoms. Given immigration and acculturation trends, she anticipates that language barriers will be most prominent in older women over 55 as women who immigrate later in life are more likely to be monolingual, and that her findings will highlight current areas for improvement in end-of-life care for the gynecology oncology patient population. By conducting retrospective chart review to define a cohort of aging gynecology oncology patients with advanced disease (i.e., stage 3 and 4) who obtained their care at University of California San Francisco (a large urban academic center) in the Department of Gynecology Oncology over the past 10 years (2010 to 2020), Dr. Reyes aims to accomplish the following. First, she will determine the utilization and timing of palliative care for aging gynecology oncology patients with advanced disease at our institution. Secondly, she will compare the utilization of palliative care between English-speaking versus non-English speaking aging gynecology oncology patients with advanced disease. Through the Pepper Center, Dr. Reyes was able to receive analytic support from the DAC and mentorship from VARC core leader, Dr. Rebecca Sudore, in analyzing her cohort in relation to her aims. Analysis is currently in progress. In addition, through the DAC, Dr. Reyes is able to access additional data support from UCSF Clinical Translational Science Institute, a partner of the UCSF Pepper Center.
6. Project Title: Meaningful activities in seriously ill, vulnerable older adults
  Leader: Anna Oh, BSN, MSN, MPH
  Engagement in meaningful activities – enjoyable physical, leisure, social, spiritual activities related to personal interests and values – gives life identity and purpose, and is therefore beneficial to the emotional and physical well-being of older adults. As older adults age and become more susceptible to disease, disability, and cognitive impairment, the ability to participate and engage in meaningful activities place the older adult at higher risk of loss of identity and well-being. Dr. Oh’s cross-sectional examination published in JAMA IM of meaningful activity engagement in the National Health and Aging Trends Study (NHATS) found functional disability was the leading factor of nonengagement. Yet, diverse racial and ethnic groups of older adults may have varying experiences with meaningful activity engagement over time due to cultural and language barriers as well as limited access to services and resources. Little is known about meaningful activity engagement in diverse groups of older adults from historically disadvantaged backgrounds, its relationship to disability, and barriers and facilitators for engagement, such as social support, neighborhood factors, and socioeconomic and demographic factors. Previous studies have documented concerning racial and ethnic differences in the experience of aging, older Americans and their caregivers in caregiving experiences, access to and use of in-home rehabilitation services, and advance care planning. In addition to reducing racial and ethnic differences and health disparities, culturally-sensitive, community-based interventions have the potential to increase access to high-quality healthcare for diverse older adults. Culturally-sensitive, community-based interventions that include assessments of meaningful activity engagement can guide goals of care conversations, medical treatment recommendations, and target existing services and supports (e.g. home health, hospice, long-term services and supports) for older adults to stay engaged in meaningful activities. The objective of this study is to identify activity engagement in older, community-dwelling African-American/Black, Latinx/Hispanic, Asian, and bi/multiracial NHATS participants before and after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. The data and findings from this research will be a springboard for a K23 award where Dr. Oh will examine longitudinally the barriers and facilitators to staying engaged in meaningful activities. Through support from this award, the Pepper Center is helping to catalyze Dr. Oh’s long-term goal is to become a clinician leader who improves the quality-of-life of diverse, community-dwelling, seriously ill older adults with home-based models of care.
7. Project Title: Social relationships and distressing symptoms among older adults
  Leader: Ashwin Kotwal, MD, MS
  Social isolation and pain are highly prevalent conditions critical to the quality of life of older adults. Social isolation (an objective deficit in the number of relationships with family, friends, or the community), occurs in 15-20% of older adults and is associated with lower health related quality of life, higher functional impairment, higher health care costs, and death. The lifetime prevalence of chronic pain ranges from 24-45% and is a substantial contributor to reduced quality of life, health care costs, and the U.S. opioid epidemic. Pain also has known links to other symptoms such as fatigue, dyspnea, and insomnia. Although it is generally understood that pain and depression or anxiety can be linked and be more costly and disabling together than either condition alone, the relationship between pain and social isolation has received little attention. Yet, social isolation may be both a contributor to the onset of pain and amplify existing pain. If a causal relationship between social isolation and pain exists, this could inform efforts to address challenges in pain and symptom distress among older adults, including inadequate symptom control, impacts of pain on function and independence, and contraindications to opioid and non-opioid analgesics due to their adverse effects. The objective of this pilot project is therefore to gain preliminary understanding of the relationship of social isolation to pain and other downstream symptoms among older adults. We will leverage nationally-representative cohorts of older adults, the National Health and Aging Trends Study (NHATS) and the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), which have longitudinal data on social isolation, pain, and opioid use. Questions will determine the cross-sectional association between social isolation and pain and opioid use.
8. Project Title: Understanding and Improving the Psychosocial Function of Older Adults undergoing Major Surgery
  Leader: Victoria Tang, MD, MAS
  "In population studies, older adults who are deficient in their psychosocial function have higher mortality rates, rehospitalization rates, and functional decline following a life stressor such as surgery. Little is known about the components of psychosocial function specific to geriatric surgical outcomes (e.g., mortality, functional decline) and treatment targeting these components has been limited to small surgery-specific cohort studies (i.e., cardiac). To address these gaps, our team recruited older surgical patients in the pre-operative setting to begin exploring their surgical experience through one-on-one interviews. Our preliminary findings support that many older surgical patients suffered from low psychosocial function. This was especially true if post-operative symptoms were still present 6 months after surgery. The long-term goal of this project is to understand and improve the psychosocial function of older adults before and after major surgery. The objective of this application is to collect pilot data to support an NIH R01 application focused on describing, quantitatively, the psychological and social challenges older surgical patients experience before and after major surgery. This application will focus on (1) developing a feasible and acceptable psychosocial survey for the older surgical patient and (2) developing and testing a post-operative recruitment strategy of older non-elective surgical patients. Our team has a track-record of successfully recruiting older patients undergoing elective major surgery and in conducting one-on-one interviews. We are well-equipped to achieve these aims. "
9. Project Title: Assessing inpatient disparities in pain assessment and management for older minority patients
  Leader: Aksharananda Rambachan, MD, MPH
  "Despite an increased emphasis on identifying pain as the “fifth vital sign,” there are shortcomings in our approach to assessing, documenting, and responding to pain. Cognitive impairment in older persons, drugdrug interactions, patient comorbidities, fall-risk, and frailty all present additional challenges for prescribing clinicians. Furthermore racial, ethnic, cultural, and language-based differences across patients are areas where disparities are present. Studies across various health settings have found that older patients and minority patients are at high risk for underassessment and undertreatment of pain. Pain assessment tools are ubiquitous, given regulatory and hospital level requirements, yet their appropriateness and utility remain understudied in this patient population. Pain is assessed by nursing across various time points using various self-report and behavioral tools. Clinicians often utilize their own individualized bedside approach and review of clinical data in assessing and managing a patient’s pain, disconnected from nursing workflows. There is a paucity of guidelines for inpatient pain management for both acute and chronic conditions and minimal research into best practices for elderly minority patients. We do not know how pain is managed quantitatively across common medical diagnoses for these patient groups, and with regards to the interaction between age, race, ethnicity, and language status."
10. Project Title: Mixed methods evaluation of the Best Case/Worst Case-Geriatric Oncology communication tool
  Leader: Melisa L. Wong, MD, MAS
  "To promote delivery of goal-concordant care in geriatric oncology, I recently completed a focus group study with 40 stakeholders (14 older adults with lung cancer, 12 caregivers, and 14 medical oncologists) to adapt the innovative Best Case/Worst Case (BC/WC) communication tool to meet the specific needs of older adults with cancer and their caregivers. The original BC/WC tool was developed to improve shared decision making for older adults making non-cancer surgical decisions. BC/WC uses scenario planning—narrative description of plausible futures—to describe the best, worst, and most likely cases for each option. Scenarios are informed by clinical judgement and knowledge of patient risk factors (e.g., frailty, comorbidities). These scenarios plus an accompanying graphic aid help patients formulate and express preferences and concerns about treatment burdens and outcomes. The clinician then provides a goal-concordant recommendation. In our geriatric oncology adaptation study,15 participants believed that the BC/WC tool could help patients understand their cancer care choices, explore tradeoffs and picture potential outcomes, and deliberate about decisions based on their goals and values. Oncologists also reported that the tool could guide conversations to address points that may frequently be skipped (e.g., alternative options, treatment goals). Based on participant input, our adaptations included framing cancer care as a series of decisions, eliciting patient preferences and asking permission before offering the worst-case scenario, and selection of the two most relevant options to present if multiple exist. I now propose a two-part feasibility pilot study with an initial lead-in phase to refine the intervention, training, and study procedures (2 medical oncologists and 4 older patients) followed by a cluster randomized trial (CRT; 6 medical oncologists, 42 older patients, and up to 42 caregivers) to evaluate our adapted BC/WC-Geriatric Oncology (BC/WC-GeriOnc) communication tool for use with older adults with advanced cancer and their caregivers. In the CRT, 6 medical oncologists will be randomized 1:1 to BC/WC-GeriOnc intervention training versus usual care with wait-list control."
DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS (11 Development Projects Listed)
1. Project Title: Methods with Survey Data
  Leader: Grisell Diaz-Ramirez, MS, Bocheng Jing, MS
  Currently there are no clear methods or best practice guidelines regarding analysis of survey data to support all survey topics ranging from surgery prediction to cognition. There are currently no software packages available, thus creating an issue of no standardized methods in calculations to perform analysis. The aims of this development project were to explore survey data issues from three main aspects: survival prediction (cox model, competing risk), propensity score methods, and linear mixed model.

Since the start of this project, Ms. Diaz-Ramirez and Mr. Jing have been actively disseminating their findings, of note:
1. The following proceeding paper was accepted to SAS Global: “Mixed-Effects Models and Complex Survey Data with the GLIMMIX Procedure”
2. The following proceeding paper was also accepted to SAS Global: “Propensity Score Matching with Survey Data”
3. SAS proceedings papers on mixed model and propensity score were presented at the Virtual SAS Global meeting. They are both now published on the Proceedings of the SAS Global Forum 2020 and also accessible online to reach the a global audience
Mixed model download link
Propensity score download link
2. Project Title: Statistical Harmonization of Two Nationally Representative Data Sets: HRS and NHATS
  Leader: Sun Jeon, PhD
  Dr. Sun Jeon seeks to develop a harmonized coding of ADL/IADL and other functional measures using the Health Retirement Study (HRS) and the National Health Aging Trends Study (NHATS). Through her analysis of the prevalence of disabilities in those two data sets, NHATS showed higher prevalence across ADL/IADL measures than that in HRS. Currently there is a lack of an understanding of whether the NHATS cohort consists of generally sicker people or the discrepancy was derived from the way the questions were asked or the survey is done. From observation of work that UCSF Pepper Center Investigators are engaging in, she has seen great overlap their interests in and demands for this work. Dr. Jeon will be dedicating her effort to further study in this area to get a deeper understanding of NHATS/HRS cohorts, survey design, and of course as well as some statistical tests.
3. Project Title: Developing an Algorithm to Identify Older Persons with Unmet Need for Equipment in National Datasets
  Leader: Kenneth Lam MD, John Boscardin PhD
  Dr. Kenny Lam (VA Quality Scholar) and DAC collaborated on developing a novel algorithm that has since resulted in a high-profile publication. The team first approached the development of this algorithm by creating a cohort of older adults aged 65 and above from the nationally representative National Health and Aging Trends Study (NHATS) and selecting participants with bathing and toileting equipment needs. Next, they cross referenced this cohort with Medicare claims data. Afterwards, the team examined how many participants did not receive equipment based on the NHATS annual follow up interviews, where interviewers meet annually with participants in person to ask about health, function, living environment, and finances and to conduct an objective assessment of physical performance. Lastly, the team used data from the 2016 to 2019 waves to determine the incidence of equipment acquisition among those with unmet need in 2015. The description of this methodology and the analysis made possible with this novel algorithm has been published in JAMA Internal Medicine, as cited below: Lam K, Shi Y, Boscardin J, Covinsky KE. Unmet Need for Equipment to Help With Bathing and Toileting Among Older US Adults. JAMA Intern Med. 2021 Mar 22:e210204. doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2021.0204. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33749707; PMCID: PMC7985819.
4. Project Title: Deep Natural Language Processing Identifies Variation in Care Preference Documentation
  Leader: Rebecca Sudore, MD
  Retrospective chart reviews are one of many methods for researchers and clinicians to extract key information about subjects and patients. However, this is usually a time-intensive process. In the past year, Dr. Sudore and her collaborators have explored the use of natural language processing (NLP) and how it may increase efficiency in performing chart review. NLP (i.e., computer identification of phrases within electronic records) can be combined with deep learning (i.e., computer systems that can access and use information in an adaptive way) to create tools to aid in the rapid identification of care preference documentation. Neural network models are commonly used in deep learning. Similar to the neural networks in the human brain, computational neural networks include a series of statistical algorithms capable of modeling and processing nonlinear relationships between inputs and outputs in parallel and real time. These algorithms generate rules to associate sequences of words or images on a prespecified concept, such as care preferences, and become more accurate (i.e., learn) with more data over time. This adaptive learning process can be used to abstract complex information from clinical data with an accuracy similar to highly trained humans. As an example of this application, Dr. Sudore and her collaborators have developed and validated deep natural language processing in the identification of documentation of care preferences for patients admitted to the ICU. Their methods and findings can be found in the following manuscript: Udelsman BV, Moseley ET, Sudore RL, Keating NL, Lindvall C. Deep Natural Language Processing Identifies Variation in Care Preference Documentation. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2020 Jun;59(6):1186-1194.e3. doi: 10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2019.12.374. Epub 2020 Jan 9. PMID: 31926970.
5. Project Title: An eHealth platform to facilitate financial understanding and legal preparation for patients with dementia and their caregivers
  Leader: Rebecca Sudore, MD
  In collaboration with Sarah Hooper, JD and David Farrell, MPH, Dr. Sudore is a Co-I on this new NIA R44 grant. Prior work shows that digital programs can be designed to be usable and effective for patients with dementia and their caregivers. The team will be working to build and test a web-based platform for educating patients and caregivers about financial risks, strategies they can undertake, and the specific legal preparations they can make; facilitating completion of legal documents in coordination with legal professionals; and communicating about financial and legal issues with health professionals. Dr. Sudore is providing ongoing VARC consultation on the development and testing of new interventions for older adults and recruitment and retention of study subjects.
6. Project Title: Developing an Evidenced-Based, Online and Advance Care Planning Program to Prepare Surrogates for Medical Decision Making
  Leader: Rebecca Sudore, MD
  Dr. Sudore obtained funding from the Greenwall Foundation to develop and test a new intervention designed to help caregivers and care partners prepare for their role as a medical decision maker. Dr. Sudore and her research team have obtained surrogate input in focus groups and in-depth interviews and are developing an online PREPARE for THEIR Care Program. Video stories have been produced and co-developed with a community advisory board. They show surrogates how to start advance care planning conversations, how to communicate with medical providers, and how to make informed medical decisions for others.
7. Project Title: The Effect of Difficult to Read HIPAA forms on the Recruitment and Retention of Older Primary Care Patients in a Pragmatic Trial.
  Leader: Rebecca Sudore, MD
  Dr. Sudore is a Co-I on this PCORI project. The parent trial is a 3 UC-site pragmatic trial designed to compare population-based advance care planning interventions. As part of the trial, a subset of these patients was recruited to answer questionnaires. In addition to helping this team create literacy- and culturally appropriate recruitment materials, Dr. Sudore also helped the team simplify the informed consent form to the 5th grade reading level. Unfortunately, the UC system would not allow the HIPAA forms to also be simplified. She mentored her colleagues at UCLA and helped to design a nested study to compare rates of recruitment for patients who were mailed recruitment packets that contained the HIPAA form and those that did not. Preliminary finds show that recruitment rates with the HIPAA forms were 9%, while the recruitment rates without HIPAA forms was 14%, p< 0.001. Recruitment was also lower for patients who self-identified as being from a racial/ethnic minority background, and those who spoke Spanish. For the group in which we did not include the HIPAA, we were able to achieve a closer demographic comparator group to the larger patient populations. Dr. Sudore is working with her UCLA colleagues to submit this manuscript and is working with the UCSF IRB to consider how to simplify the HIPAA forms.
8. Project Title: A Novel Method for Identifying a Parsimonious and Accurate Predictive Model for Multiple Clinical Outcomes
  Leader: Grisell Diaz-Ramirez, Sei Lee, MD, Alex Smith, MD, Siqi Gan, John Boscardin, PhD
  At present, there has been limited research on how best to develop clinical prognostic models that predict multiple outcomes simultaneously with accuracy and parsimony. Thus, the DAC Statistical Lab led by Dr. Boscardin collaborated with PESC core leaders Drs. Alex Smith and Sei Lee to evaluate a novel computing method for predictor selection in prognostic models of multiple clinical outcomes using the minimum average normalized BIC across outcomes, which they called the Best Average BIC (baBIC). To develop the proposed method, they used the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) data and a common set of health-related and demographic variables to predict time to: 1) Activities of Daily Living (ADL) Dependence, 2) Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) Difficulty, 3) Mobility Dependence, and 4) Death. Using HRS data, they demonstrated their method and conducted a simulation study to investigate performance. Upon testing, they found the average Harrell's C-statistics across outcomes of the models obtained with the baBIC and Union methods were comparable. Despite the similar discrimination, the baBIC method produced more parsimonious models than the Union method. In contrast, the models selected with the Intersection method were the most parsimonious, but with worst predictive accuracy, and the opposite was true in the Full method. In the simulations, the baBIC method performed well by identifying many of the predictors selected in the baBIC model of the case-study data most of the time and excluding those not selected in the majority of the simulations. This concludes that the proposed method identified a common subset of variables to predict multiple clinical outcomes with superior balance between parsimony and predictive accuracy to current methods. This body of work proves that it is possible to select a common set of variables to predict multiple clinical outcomes while maintaining parsimony and predictive accuracy. Moving forward, researchers will be able to use this algorithm and code to build prognostic models that are both accurate and parsimonious, potentially saving the clinical time and expense associated with gathering additional unnecessary predictors. Full details about this project are found in the following publication: Diaz-Ramirez LG, Lee SJ, Smith AK, Gan S, Boscardin WJ. A Novel Method for Identifying a Parsimonious and Accurate Predictive Model for Multiple Clinical Outcomes. Comput Methods Programs Biomed. 2021 Jun;204:106073. doi: 10.1016/j.cmpb.2021.106073. Epub 2021 Mar 27. PMID: 33831724; PMCID: PMC8098121.
9. Project Title: A Novel Metric for Developing Easy-to-Use and Accurate Clinical Prediction Models: The Time-cost Information Criterion
  Leader: Sei Lee, MD, Alex Smith, MD, Grisel Diaz-Ramirez, Ken Covinsky, MD, Siqi Gan, Catherine Chen, John Boscardin, PhD
  Core(s): Data and Analysis Core (DAC)
  Current guidelines recommend that clinicians use clinical prediction models to estimate future risk to guide decisions. For example, predicted fracture risk is a major factor in the decision to initiate bisphosphonate medications. However, current methods for developing prediction models often lead to models that are accurate but difficult to use in clinical settings. The goal of this project was to develop and test whether a new metric that explicitly balances model accuracy with clinical usability leads to accurate, easier-to-use prediction models. The DAC Statistical Lab, led by Dr. Boscardin, facilitated the cross-center collaboration amongst PESC core leaders, Drs. Alex Smith and Sei Lee, PESC Scholar Dr. Catherine Chen, and UCSF Pepper Center Director Dr. Ken Covinsky to develop and test whether a new metric that explicitly balances model accuracy with clinical usability leads to accurate, easier-to-use prediction models. The project team proposed a new metric called the Time-cost Information Criterion (TCIC) that will penalize potential predictor variables that take a long time to obtain in clinical settings. To demonstrate how the TCIC can be used to develop models that are easier-to-use in clinical settings, we use data from the 2000 wave of the Health and Retirement Study (n=6311) to develop and compare time to mortality prediction models using a traditional metric (Bayesian Information Criterion or BIC) and the TCIC. Through their analysis, they found that the TCIC models utilized predictors that could be obtained more quickly than BIC models while achieving similar discrimination. For example, the TCIC identified a 7-predictor model with a total time-cost of 44 seconds, while the BIC identified a 7-predictor model with a time-cost of 119 seconds. The Harrell C-statistic of the TCIC and BIC 7-predictor models did not differ (0.7065 vs. 0.7088, P=0.11). Accounting for the time-costs of potential predictor variables through the use of the TCIC led to the development of an easier-to-use mortality prediction model with similar discrimination. Although current prediction model development strategies focus on improving predictive accuracy, the lack of attention to the clinical usability of prediction models have led to the development of many accurate models which are difficult to use in clinical settings. Through this project, our center has introduced the concept of using time-costs as a way of identifying predictors that are easier to obtain in clinical practice. This work has shown that prediction models with similar discrimination, but decreased time-costs can be developed, and this may lead to models that are as accurate and easier to use in routine clinical practice. Full details about this project are found in the following publication: Lee SJ, Smith AK, Diaz-Ramirez LG, Covinsky KE, Gan S, Chen CL, Boscardin WJ. A Novel Metric for Developing Easy-to-Use and Accurate Clinical Prediction Models: The Time-cost Information Criterion. Med Care. 2021 May 1;59(5):418-424. doi: 10.1097/MLR.0000000000001510. PMID: 33528231; PMCID: PMC8026517.
10. Project Title: Methods For Advancing The Rigor and Scope of Qualitative Datasets Relevant To Vulnerable Older Adults
  Leader: Dan Dohan, PhD
  Multiple NIA-funded PIs affiliated with OAIC and/or Dr. Dohan’s Medical Cultures Lab (MCL) have assembled qualitative datasets examining experiences of aging, physical and cognitive disability (e.g.,dementia), and quality of life among patients, care partners, and/or providers in primary, palliative, and end-of-life care. These rich data could be combined to answer new questions and to support OAIC investigators, akin to secondary analysis of quantitative data. Yet, the science and methods of secondary qualitative data analysis are nascent. Aim: To develop novel methods for merging qualitative and mixed methods data across studies involving older adults with disability and their care partners and clinicians. Approach: Drs. Dohan, Harrison, and team will develop standardized techniques to link concepts and narratives across multiple qualitative datasets – analogous to linking variables across quantitative datasets. We will work with OAIC/MCL-affiliated investigators to reach consensus on essential methodologic questions for merging. Examples include procedures for merging raw (e.g., recordings and transcripts) versus annotated data, how to include annotated data (such as participant demographic information or fieldworker reflections) to inform analysis, and how best to include contextual data such as data collection setting (e.g., nursing home, community). We will use findings from the process of merging our MCL-OAIC datasets to describe standardized conditions under which qualitative data can be concatenated for analysis across studies in accordance with (a) recently updated NIH requirements for data use and sharing; (b) established practices of qualitative research ethics and protection of human participants. This will prepare merged qualitative datasets for secondary analysis using next-generation computer-assisted analysis methods developed through Dr. Dohan’s NIA Director’s Pioneer Award that exceed human-only qualitative coding in reliability, accuracy and efficiency.430-433
11. Project Title: Methods for Estimating the Causal Effect of Serious Acute Events on Long-Term Functional Trajectories and Other Longitudinal Measures
  Leader: W John Boscardin PhD
  Assessing the impact of acute events such as hip fracture or heart failure hospitalization on future outcomes in HRS, NHATS, and other Medicare-linked panel surveys poses substantial challenges, as disruptive events identified through claims can occur continuously in the dates between the annual or bi-annual interviews where function and cognition are assessed.18, 193, 244, 334 To date, we and others have employed a number of statistical methods for estimating the casual effect of the intervening event including (1) mixed effects modeling of the longitudinal outcome in a cohort of subjects, only some of whom experience the intervening event;244 (2) mixed effects modeling of the longitudinal outcome in those who experience the event and then matching them to subjects who have not experienced it;117, 240 (3) multistate modeling with states considering combinations of functional status and whether the intervening event has been experienced.111, 232 For these potential outcomes framings of the causal inference questions, we have found that the predicted before-and-after curves from fitting any of these models have tremendous graphical impact and clinical impact335 and clinical interpretability. We will thus examine the performance of these methods in a range of relevant scenarios. Our aims are: Specific Aim 1: To conduct a series of careful simulation studies to evaluate the relative advantages and disadvantages of these modeling methods in longitudinal studies with interval assessments, for example HRS, NHATS, and many others. Specific Aim 2: To disseminate open-source statistical programming code for the methods we develop. ? Approach: We will follow recently published best practices for simulation studies.336 We will use several primary strategies for generating our simulated data sets as in our recent work226 and others. First, we will assume a true underlying mixed effects model superimposed with possible times of disruptive event and death. We will vary key parameters (numbers of subjects and measures per subject, distribution of covariates, regression and variance components in the longitudinal model, hazard parameters for disruptive event, dropout and death) in a factorial or fractional factorial manner. Next, we will use assume that the data are truly generated from a multistate model where we again vary the key parameters including the observation times and the transition probabilities. Lastly, we will use recent developments in synthetic data generation337-339 to conduct our studies in random instances strongly reflective of our data setting of interest. The target causal estimates of interest are not expressible as single regression model parameters, but can be computed as contrasts in averaged counterfactual predictions. Finally, the code to conduct these analyses will be distributed through the GitHub for our statistical laboratory.333 ? Selection of Future DPs: The DAC will fund DPs in Years 2 and 4, and the VARC in alternating years. Our method for selecting subsequent DPs is described in the LAC. Briefly, we will disseminate a Request for Applications to the UCSF community and solicit 2-page letters of intent. Final proposals will be reviewed and selected by the LAC Selection Committee. We will give special preference to research on novel measurement approaches to late-life disability or which develop novel methods that can advance the science of analytic approaches to the study of late-life disability.
RESEARCH (6 Projects Listed)
    NIH K01AG059831 / ( 2019 - 2024 )
  Project Summary/Abstract This is an application for a K01 award for Krista Lyn Harrison, PhD, whose research focuses on improvinglife for older adults with Alzheimer s disease and related dementias (ADRD) and their informal caregivers. Dr.Harrison is a health services and policy researcher and Assistant Professor in the Division of Geriatrics at theUniversity of California, San Francisco (UCSF). Dr. Harrison has 12-years of experience in qualitative methodsand led the research enterprise of a large hospice prior to completing a UCSF aging research fellowship andimplementation science certificate. Through the activities proposed in this application, Dr. Harrison willstrengthen and address gaps in her experience through a training plan focused on: a) advanced statisticalmethods in linked datasets, b) ADRD clinical care and research, and c) translating mixed-methods data intoADRD interventions. Resources to foster her career development include UCSF s nationally-recognizedDivision of Geriatrics, Memory and Aging Center, Institute for Health Policy Studies, and K Scholar s program,Dr. Harrison has assembled an extraordinary multidisciplinary team with extensive expertise. Alzheimer s disease and related dementias are progressive incurable illnesses causing significant publichealth burden. Palliative care focuses on reducing suffering and improving quality of life by attending to themulti-dimensional sources of distress for seriously ill individuals and families. Evidence for quality palliativecare for advanced ADRD comes primarily from research in nursing homes. For the more than 700,000 olderadults with advanced Alzheimer s disease who die at home each year, clinicians lack population-level evidenceto guide caregivers and patients in anticipating and planning for disease changes. The proposed K01 willaddress critical knowledge gaps and develop a toolkit of resources to support basic palliative care provided byneurologists. Dr. Harrison will first use a nationally-representative dataset to longitudinally examine factorsassociated with mortality and nursing home stay among people living at home with severe and advancingADRD. Second, she will use semi-structured interviews with older adults living at home with ADRD, currentand bereaved caregivers to understand palliative and end-of-life experiences and opportunities to improvepalliative care for ADRD. Third, Dr. Harrison will work with multiple stakeholders to refine and assess thefeasibility of a toolkit of basic palliative care resources for use in neurology clinical practice (such as anassessment checklist, evidence-based strategies for discussing serious illness prognosis and advance careplanning adapted for ADRD, referral and billing guides, and summarized evidence from Aims 1 and 2 on livingat home with ADRD to inform anticipatory guidance). The goal of this toolkit is to improve neurologists communication with older adults living at home with advancing ADRD and/or their informal caregivers. Theproposed research will provide Dr. Harrison with the preliminary data, training, and experience to supportfuture competitive independent R-series applications to test the efficacy and effectiveness of her intervention.
    NIH K76AG059931 / ( 2019 - 2024 )
  PROJECT SUMMARY / ABSTRACT This application for the Paul B. Beeson Emerging Leaders Career Development Award in Aging (K76)describes the five-year career development plan of Dr. Victoria Tang, a geriatrician and young physician-scientist in the Division of Geriatrics at the University of California, San Francisco. Dr. Tang s long-term careergoal is to develop a research niche that bridges the field of aging and surgery to improve the care of oldersurgical patients. The specific career development goals outlined in this application include developing expertise inimplementation science, intervention development, clinical trial design/analysis, and building a research nichethat bridges the field of aging and surgery to improve the care of older surgical patients at the national level.The primary mentor for accomplishing these career development goals is Dr. Ken Covinsky, Professor ofMedicine at UCSF and Principle Investigator of the UCSF Older Americans Independence Center. Dr.Covinsky will be assisted by co-mentor Dr. Emily Finlayson, Professor of Surgery and Director of UCSF sCenter for Surgery in Older Adults. The career development plan of Dr. Tang includes individualizedmentorship with her mentorship team, formal coursework, one-on-one tutorials, and leadership training. The overall objective of the research plan is to understand the role of psychosocial vulnerability in post-operative outcomes with the largest cohort of older surgical patients to date and to develop a pilot test apsychosocial intervention to improve depressive symptoms, coping skills, and social support. The centralhypothesis of this project is that preoperative psychosocial vulnerability is associated with post-operativefunctional recovery, and a greater understanding of psychosocial vulnerability and interventions designed tomitigate its effects will improve post-operative outcomes, such functional recovery. The specific aims of theproject include (1) determining the independent association between pre-operative psychosocial vulnerabilitywith 2-year overall mortality and functional decline following major surgery; (2) understanding howpsychosocial vulnerability impacts post-operative recovery in older surgical patients through semi-structuredinterviews with older surgical patients and caregivers; and (3) comparing 6-month functional recoveryoutcomes between those randomized to a psychosocial intervention (navigator-led social support and problemsolving therapy) versus usual care. These aims will permit a better understanding of psychosocial vulnerability,a geriatric-specific risk factor, in older adults that may be especially important in a time of major surgery. Theapplication is relevant to NIH and NIA because Dr. Tang s career goal is to leverage an understanding of thegeriatric-specific risk factors to elucidate potential aspects needing interventions and to improve sharedsurgical decision-making among older adults and their physicians.
  Leader(s): WONG, MELISA L
    NIH K76AG064431 / ( 2019 - 2024 )
  PROJECT SUMMARY/ABSTRACTThis is a Beeson K76 career development award for Dr. Melisa Wong, a thoracic oncology clinician-investigator dually trained in medical oncology and aging research. Dr. Wong s long-term goal is to become anational leader in geriatric oncology research, improving cancer care for older adults by aligning treatmentswith individualized patient goals. More than 72% of older adults with cancer report that they would not choosea treatment that results in functional impairment, even if it improves survival. Yet, oncologists traditionally maketreatment decisions based on cancer characteristics, often without discussing how treatment might affectfunction or eliciting patients goals and values. To move from cancer-centered to patient-centered decisionmaking, oncologists must both predict which older adults are at highest risk for functional decline andcommunicate complex information about benefits and harms to patients in a way that aligns treatments withtheir goals for function, quality of life, longevity, and other priorities. This proposal aims to 1) identify risk factorsfor functional decline in daily activities, physical performance, and life-space mobility during chemotherapyand/or immunotherapy in older adults with metastatic lung cancer; 2A) adapt the Best Case/Worst Case(BC/WC) communication tool; and 2B) test its feasibility for use during treatment discussions with older adultswith lung cancer. In Aim 1 s multi-site cohort study, patients age 65 and older with metastatic lung cancer willundergo serial geriatric assessments to measure functional status during chemotherapy and/orimmunotherapy. In Aim 2A s focus group study, older adults with lung cancer, caregivers, and oncologists willparticipate in focus groups to elicit feedback aimed at adapting the BC/WC tool to incorporate function andother patient priorities into patient-centered decision making. In Aim 2B s pre-post pilot study, oncologists willbe trained to use the adapted BC/WC tool; treatment discussions with older adults with lung cancer before andafter training will be analyzed. Dr. Wong s exceptional multidisciplinary mentoring team is led by Dr. LouiseWalter, an internationally recognized expert on individualized decision making for cancer screening in olderadults. This award will support Dr. Wong s transition to research independence through dedicated training in 1)longitudinal modeling and risk prediction for functional decline in older adults with cancer; 2) shared decisionmaking and decision-making interventions for older adults with functional or cognitive impairment; 3) clinicaltrial design to test decision-making interventions for older adults with cancer; and 4) leadership skills to directmulticenter research to transform geriatric oncology care. The results from this proposal will serve as thefoundation for a multicenter cohort study to develop and validate a risk prediction score for functional declineduring lung cancer treatment in older adults and a cluster-randomized trial to test the effect of the adaptedBC/WC tool on communication, shared decision making, and receipt of goal-concordant care.
    NIH K76AG064545 / ( 2019 - 2024 )
  PROJECT SUMMARY/ABSTRACTDue in large part to the successful development of antiretroviral therapy, adults with HIV infection are livinglonger; in the United States, 47% of all people living with HIV are age 50 and older. This aging populationincreasingly experiences multimorbidity, polypharmacy, and significant mental health and psychosocialchallenges. Older HIV-positive adults also experience a high frequency of geriatric conditions including falls,frailty, and functional impairment. Geriatric assessment and management could help address this medical andsocial complexity. Supporting a role for geriatric assessment, studies show that assessments can predicthospitalization and mortality among older HIV-positive adults and geriatric conditions are associated withpoorer quality of life. Yet little is known on how to best integrate geriatric assessment and management in HIVcare settings. Strategies developed need to be efficient, able to be administered by non-geriatrics trainedclinicians, and also tailored to the unique aging issues that are influenced by HIV infection. Our proposaladdresses this knowledge gap by developing and testing a tailored Geriatric Assessment and InitialManagement guide focused on the needs of older HIV-positive adults, also referred to as G-AIM HIV.Specifically, the objectives of this proposal are to 1) develop G-AIM HIV by incorporating patient and expertperspectives on the most important geriatric assessment domains and initial management steps; 2) examineHIV providers and staff attitudes towards G-AIM HIV and identify facilitators and barriers to its use; and 3) pilotG-AIM HIV in two HIV outpatient settings to evaluate feasibility, acceptability and preliminary patient reportedoutcomes such as quality of life. The objectives of this proposal support the career development activities ofthe PI Dr. Meredith Greene focused on 1) Delphi methodology and stakeholder engagement, 2) qualitativeresearch methods, 3) intervention and clinical trial research with vulnerable populations, and 4) ongoingleadership development. Dr. Greene will conduct all work at the University of California, San Francisco with anexceptional mentoring team, led by Dr. Kenneth Covinsky. This K76 Beeson proposal will advance ourknowledge of how to integrate geriatric principles into HIV care to improve quality of life for older HIV-positiveadults. It will also provide advanced research skills and valuable data to launch Dr. Greene s career as anindependent investigator and leader at the intersection of HIV and geriatric medicine.
  Leader(s): LAI, JENNIFER C.
    NIH R01AG059183 / ( 2018 - 2023 )
  PROJECT SUMMARYThe decision to proceed with liver transplantation in a patient with end-stage liver disease depends not just onthe risk of death without transplant but the risk of adverse outcomes after it. The transplant clinician's assess-ment of a cirrhotic patient's global functional health which we have conceptualized as his or her vulnerabilityto health stressors is a critical factor (oftentimes the sole factor) in this decision. Yet at the current time, nostandardized, objective criteria for poor global functional health exist to define who is too frail for transplant .Rather, assessment of functional status in transplant is subjective and is applied to decision-making ad hoc,resulting in unequal transplant access and potential denial of otherwise suitable candidates. To facilitatetransplant decision-making, a precise understanding of how pre-transplant functional status impacts post-transplant outcomes is needed to inform prediction of who will not regain excellent global functional health aftertransplant. We have demonstrated that tools to quantify frailty and functional status in older adults have provenvaluable to measure global functional health in cirrhotic patients and have developed an objective Liver FrailtyIndex, consisting of a composite of performance-based tests (grip strength, chairs stands, and balancetesting), to capture longitudinal changes in functional status specifically for use in the pre- and post-transplantsettings. Building logically upon this work, we propose to determine the impact of pre-transplant functionalstatus on 1-year post-transplant mortality and global functional health and develop/validate clinical predictionrules for these outcomes that incorporate pre-transplant functional status. To accomplish these goals, we willleverage our existing Multi-center Functional Assessment in Liver Transplantation Study, consisting of 5 USliver transplant centers (UCSF, Johns Hopkins, Columbia, Baylor, and Duke) with a track record ofcollaboration and high-impact research to obtain data on a minimum of 1,300 liver transplant recipients withassessments of functional status pre-transplantation and assessments of global functional health (including theLiver Frailty Index, disability, and quality of life) 1-year post-transplantation. These data will be used to developand validate clinical prediction rules that incorporate both pre-transplant functional status, patient and donorcharacteristics to predict death, functional status, disability, and quality of life 1-year after transplantation. Thisproject will positively impact the field by expanding our ability to measure the benefit of transplant both by howlong a recipient will live as well as by how well a recipient will live after liver transplantation. Importantly, thisproject will facilitate clinical decision-making for patients and their clinicians through the precise understandingof how functional status impacts outcomes and what patients can expect after liver transplantation with respectto functional recovery. Given that functional status is modifiable in cirrhotic patients, our data will also supportfuture investigations to develop effective strategies to improve pre-transplant functional status with the goal ofreducing mortality and optimizing post-transplant functional health.
  Leader(s): GARDNER, RAQUEL C.
    NIH R01NS110944 / ( 2019 - 2024 )
  PROJECT SUMMARY / ABSTRACTSome 2.8 million Americans seek medical attention for traumatic brain injury (TBI) annually, resulting inestimated annual costs of over $75 billion. Older adults have the highest and fastest rising rate of TBI of anyother age-group, with 1 in 50 adults age =75y seeking medical attention for TBI in 2013. Older adults with TBIexperience higher mortality, slower recovery, worse outcomes, and may be at especially high risk for post-TBIdementia. There are few evidence-based guidelines for management, no tools to provide patients and familieswith reliable estimates of prognosis, and few proven treatments. Progress has been limited by: 1. systematicexclusion of older disabled patients from most prior prospective TBI studies, and 2. lack of age-appropriate TBIresearch tools. The overall objective is to launch a 2-site prospective geriatric TBI cohort study that will directlyaddress these barriers by applying state-of-the-art geriatric research methods to the field of TBI to improverepresentation of older patients in TBI research, and to develop a novel approach to measuring age-appropriate TBI predictors, outcomes, blood-based biomarkers, and neuropathology. The approach rests on 2foundational concepts: 1. Geriatric TBI is different from TBI in younger patients and will require a targeted age-appropriate approach. 2. Baseline health status including comorbidities/polypharmacy, physical frailty,functional status, and brain structure is recognized as a key predictor of outcome in the field of geriatrics butis not systematically measured in TBI research. The central hypothesis is that pre-injury health will beextremely heterogeneous in geriatric TBI and will be a key predictor of outcome in this population. Anoutstanding team of experts in TBI and aging research will achieve these Aims: Aim 1: Assemble a prospectivecohort of patients age =65y presenting to the Emergency Department =72h after TBI who underwent CT. Enroll270 TBI patient/study-partner dyads and 90 controls; perform baseline assessments and blood draws, andassess longitudinal outcomes at 2wk, 3mo, 6mo (primary endpoint) and 12mo; offer enrollment in a braindonation program. Aim 2: Develop and validate optimized geriatric TBI predictor and outcome assessments:2a: Systematically measure apolipoprotein E allele and pre-injury comorbidities/polypharmacy, physical frailty,and multi-domain functional status via detailed patient and study partner interviews using validated geriatricinstruments and assess association of these predictors with outcome after TBI. 2b: Describe the natural historyof geriatric TBI using validated TBI and geriatric outcomes and then use data-driven analytics to identify themost parsimonious set of measures for longitudinal outcome assessment in this population. 2c (exploratory):Measure pre-injury brain structure (atrophy/white matter disease of uninjured brain visualized on baseline CT)and explore association with outcome after TBI. Aim 3: Identify age-appropriate diagnostic and prognosticblood-based biomarkers. This work will directly inform design of large-scale age-appropriate geriatric TBIclinical trials that are urgently needed to improve care and outcomes in this vulnerable population.
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  6. History of Incarceration and Its Association With Geriatric and Chronic Health Outcomes in Older Adulthood.
    Garcia-Grossman IR, Cenzer I, Steinman MA, Williams BA
    JAMA Netw Open, 2023 Jan 3, 6(1): e2249785 | PMID: 36607638 | PMCID: PMC9856648
    Citations: NA | AltScore: 82.78
  7. Serum and plasma protein biomarkers associated with frailty in patients with cirrhosis.
    Ha NB, Seetharaman S, Kent DS, Yao F, Shui AM, Huang CY, Walston J, Lai JC
    Liver Transpl, 2023 Oct 1, 29(10): 1089-1099 | PMID: 36932707 | PMCID: PMC10509322
    Citations: NA | AltScore: NA
  8. In sickness and in health: Loneliness, depression, and the role of marital quality among spouses of persons with dementia.
    Hsu KY, Cenzer I, Harrison KL, Ritchie CS, Waite L, Kotwal A
    J Am Geriatr Soc, 2023 Aug 4 | PMID: 37539784
    Citations: NA | AltScore: NA
  9. Value assessment of deprescribing interventions: Suggestions for improvement.
    Hung A, Wang J, Moriarty F, Manja V, Eshetie T, Tegegn HG, Anderson TS, Radomski TR, Steinman MA
    J Am Geriatr Soc, 2023 Feb 21, 71(6): 2023-2027 | PMID: 36808728 | PMCID: PMC10258143
    Citations: NA | AltScore: NA
  10. Diagnosis and the practices of patienthood: How diagnostic journeys shape illness experiences.
    Jeske M, James J, Joyce K
    Sociol Health Illn, 2023 Jan 27 | PMID: 36707922
    Citations: NA | AltScore: 5.35
  11. The association of gait speed and self-reported difficulty walking with social isolation: A nationally-representative study.
    Kuang K, Huisingh-Scheetz M, Miller MJ, Waite L, Kotwal AA
    J Am Geriatr Soc, 2023 Mar 31, 71(8): 2549-2556 | PMID: 37000466 | PMCID: PMC10524495
    Citations: NA | AltScore: 30.15
  12. Opinion and Special Article: The Need for Specialized Training in Women's Neurology.
    LaHue SC, Paolini S, Waters JFR, O'Neal MA
    Neurology, 2023 Jan 3, 100(1): 38-42 | PMID: 36180236 | PMCID: PMC9827127
    Citations: NA | AltScore: 5.6
  13. Intraoperative Use of Albumin in Major Noncardiac Surgery: Incidence, Variability, and Association With Outcomes.
    Lazzareschi DV, Fong N, Mavrothalassitis O, Whitlock EL, Chen CL, Chiu C, Adelmann D, Bokoch MP, Chen LL, Liu KD, Pirracchio R, Mathis MR, Legrand M, MPOG Collaborators
    Ann Surg, 2023 Oct 1, 278(4): e745-e753 | PMID: 36521076 | PMCID: PMC10481928
    Citations: 2 | AltScore: 12.15
  14. Race Differences in the Association Between Sleep Medication Use and Risk of Dementia.
    Leng Y, Stone KL, Yaffe K
    J Alzheimers Dis, 2023, 91(3): 1133-1139 | PMID: 36565126 | PMCID: PMC10153591
    Citations: NA | AltScore: 1079.02
  15. Systolic blood pressure, antihypertensive treatment, and cardiovascular and mortality risk in VA nursing home residents.
    Liu X, Steinman MA, Lee SJ, Peralta CA, Graham LA, Li Y, Jing B, Fung KZ, Odden MC
    J Am Geriatr Soc, 2023 Feb 24, 71(7): 2131-2140 | PMID: 36826917 | PMCID: PMC10363184
    Citations: 1 | AltScore: NA
  16. Disparities in advance care planning among older US immigrants.
    Mindo-Panusis D, Sudore RL, Cenzer I, Smith AK, Kotwal AA
    J Am Geriatr Soc, 2023 Jul 11, 71(10): 3244-3253 | PMID: 37431769
    Citations: NA | AltScore: NA
  17. Physician Perspectives on the Use of Beta Blockers in Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction.
    Musse M, Lau JD, Yum B, Pinheiro LC, Curtis H, Anderson T, Steinman MA, Meyer M, Dorsch M, Hummel SL, Goyal P
    Am J Cardiol, 2023 Apr 15, 193: 70-74 | PMID: 36878055 | PMCID: PMC10114214
    Citations: 1 | AltScore: NA
  18. Frequency and implications of coexistent manifestations of serious illness in older adults with dementia.
    Nothelle S, Bollens-Lund E, Covinsky KE, Kelley A
    J Am Geriatr Soc, 2023 Mar 13, 71(7): 2184-2193 | PMID: 36914983 | PMCID: PMC10363196
    Citations: 1 | AltScore: 9.1
  19. Social strain and conflict among older community-dwelling adults serving as caregivers: Findings from a national sample.
    Nyarko-Odoom A, Kotwal A, Lisha NE, Yank V, Huang AJ
    J Am Geriatr Soc, 2023 Aug 14 | PMID: 37578382
    Citations: NA | AltScore: NA
  20. Elder Mistreatment Experienced by Older Caregiving Adults: Results from a National Community-Based Sample.
    Nyarko-Odoom A, Lisha NE, Yank V, Kotwal A, Balogun S, Huang AJ
    J Gen Intern Med, 2023 Jan 30, 38(7): 1709-1716 | PMID: 36717433 | PMCID: PMC10212890
    Citations: NA | AltScore: NA
  21. Effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on meaningful activity engagement in racially and ethnically diverse older adults.
    Oh A, Gan S, Boscardin WJ, Neilands TB, Stewart AL, Nguyen TT, Smith AK
    J Am Geriatr Soc, 2023 Jun 15, 71(9): 2924-2934 | PMID: 37317827 | PMCID: PMC10524549
    Citations: NA | AltScore: 7.35
  22. Reducing Volatile Anesthetic Waste Using a Commercial Electronic Health Record Clinical Decision Support Tool to Lower Fresh Gas Flows.
    Olmos AV, Robinowitz D, Feiner JR, Chen CL, Gandhi S
    Anesth Analg, 2023 Feb 1, 136(2): 327-337 | PMID: 36638512 | PMCID: PMC9846579
    Citations: 1 | AltScore: 6.1
  23. Predisposing and Precipitating Factors Associated With Delirium: A Systematic Review.
    Ormseth CH, LaHue SC, Oldham MA, Josephson SA, Whitaker E, Douglas VC
    JAMA Netw Open, 2023 Jan 3, 6(1): e2249950 | PMID: 36607634 | PMCID: PMC9856673
    Citations: 11 | AltScore: 228.13
  24. Care Setting Transitions for People With Dementia: Qualitative Perspectives of Current and Former Care Partners.
    Radcliffe KG, Halim M, Ritchie CS, Maus M, Harrison KL
    Am J Hosp Palliat Care, 2023 Feb 2 1.04991E+16 | PMID: 36730920 | PMCID: PMC10394111
    Citations: 1 | AltScore: 4.35
  25. Impact of persistent pain on function, cognition, and well-being of older adults.
    Ritchie CS, Patel K, Boscardin J, Miaskowski C, Vranceanu AM, Whitlock E, Smith A
    J Am Geriatr Soc, 2023 Jan, 71(1): 26-35 | PMID: 36475388 | PMCID: PMC9871006
    Citations: NA | AltScore: 300.85
  26. Musculoskeletal Pain, a Possible Indicator of Central Sensitization, Is Positively Associated With Lower Urinary Tract Symptom Progression in Community-Dwelling Older Men.
    Senders A, Bauer SR, Chen Y, Oken B, Fink HA, Lane NE, Sajadi KP, Marshall LM
    J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, 2023 Jun 1, 78(6): 997-1004 | PMID: 36149833 | PMCID: PMC10235191
    Citations: NA | AltScore: NA
  27. Development and applicability of a risk assessment tool for hospital-acquired mobility impairment in ambulatory older adults.
    Shah SJ, Hoffman A, Pierce L, Covinsky KE
    J Am Geriatr Soc, 2023 Jun 2, 71(10): 3221-3228 | PMID: 37265397
    Citations: NA | AltScore: 8.8
  28. Social Frailty Index: Development and validation of an index of social attributes predictive of mortality in older adults.
    Shah SJ, Oreper S, Jeon SY, Boscardin WJ, Fang MC, Covinsky KE
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2023 Feb 14, 120(7): e2209414120 | PMID: 36749720 | PMCID: PMC9963593
    Citations: 1 | AltScore: 216.26
  29. Development and validation of novel multimorbidity indices for older adults.
    Steinman MA, Jing B, Shah SJ, Rizzo A, Lee SJ, Covinsky KE, Ritchie CS, Boscardin WJ
    J Am Geriatr Soc, 2023 Jan, 71(1): 121-135 | PMID: 36282202 | PMCID: PMC9870862
    Citations: 1 | AltScore: 33.1
  30. Preoperative Factors Predict Memory Decline After Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting or Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in an Epidemiological Cohort of Older Adults.
    Tang AB, Diaz-Ramirez LG, Smith AK, Lee SJ, Whitlock EL
    J Am Heart Assoc, 2023 Jan 3, 12(1): e027849 | PMID: 36583424 | PMCID: PMC9973564
    Citations: NA | AltScore: 15.95
  31. Age-related differences in cancer relative survival in the United States: A SEER-18 analysis.
    Withrow DR, Nicholson BD, Morris EJA, Wong ML, Pilleron S
    Int J Cancer, 2023 Jun 1, 152(11): 2283-2291 | PMID: 36752633
    Citations: 2 | AltScore: NA
  1. The Experience of Homebound Older Adults During the COVID-19 Pandemic.
    Ankuda CK, Kotwal A, Reckrey J, Harrison KL, Ornstein KA
    J Gen Intern Med, 2022 Feb 15, 37(5): 1177-1182 | PMID: 35167063 | PMCID: PMC8853401
    Citations: 5 | AltScore: 6
  2. Lower urinary tract symptom severity, urinary bother, and incident life-space mobility restriction among older men.
    Bauer SR, Le T, Ensrud KE, Cawthon PM, Newman JC, Suskind AM, Covinsky K, Marshall LM, Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) Research Group
    J Am Geriatr Soc, 2022 Dec 15, 71(4): 1093-1104 | PMID: 36522685 | PMCID: PMC10089958
    Citations: NA | AltScore: 2
  3. Cognitive Impairment and Physical Frailty in Patients With Cirrhosis.
    Berry K, Duarte-Rojo A, Grab JD, Dunn MA, Boyarsky BJ, Verna EC, Kappus MR, Volk ML, McAdams-DeMarco M, Segev DL, Ganger DR, Ladner DP, Shui A, Tincopa MA, Rahimi RS, Lai JC, from the Multi-Center Functional Assessment in Liver Transplantation (FrAILT) Study.
    Hepatol Commun, 2022 Jan, 6(1): 237-246 | PMID: 34558844 | PMCID: PMC8710786
    Citations: 7 | AltScore: 2
  4. Association of Intraindividual Difference in Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate by Creatinine vs Cystatin C and End-stage Kidney Disease and Mortality.
    Chen DC, Shlipak MG, Scherzer R, Bauer SR, Potok OA, Rifkin DE, Ix JH, Muiru AN, Hsu CY, Estrella MM
    JAMA Netw Open, 2022 Feb 1, 5(2): e2148940 | PMID: 35175342 | PMCID: PMC8855239
    Citations: 13 | AltScore: 7.45
  5. The Triple Bottom Line and Stabilization Wedges: A Framework for Perioperative Sustainability.
    Choi BJJ, Chen CL
    Anesth Analg, 2022 Mar 1, 134(3): 475-485 | PMID: 35180164 | PMCID: PMC9556165
    Citations: 2 | AltScore: 16.95
  6. Trends in Geriatric Conditions Among Older Adults Admitted to US ICUs Between 1998 and 2015.
    Cobert J, Jeon SY, Boscardin J, Chapman AC, Ferrante LE, Lee S, Smith AK
    Chest, 2022 Jan 11, 161(6): 1555-1565
    pii: S0012-3692(22)00020-4. | PMID: 35026299 | PMCID: PMC9248079
    Citations: 4 | AltScore: 36.79
  7. Dispositional optimism and positive health outcomes: Moving from epidemiology to behavioral interventions.
    Cobert J, O'Donovan A
    J Am Geriatr Soc, 2022 Oct, 70(10): 2754-2757 | PMID: 35870118
    Citations: 1 | AltScore: 3.85
  8. Strengths and Challenges of Various Models of Geriatric Consultation for Older Adults Living With Human Immunodeficiency Virus.
    Davis AJ, Greene M, Siegler E, Fitch KV, Schmalzle SA, Krain A, Vera JH, Boffito M, Falutz J, Erlandson KM
    Clin Infect Dis, 2022 Mar 23, 74(6): 1101-1106 | PMID: 34358303 | PMCID: PMC8946774
    Citations: 10 | AltScore: 5.85
  9. Development and External Validation of a Mortality Prediction Model for Community-Dwelling Older Adults With Dementia.
    Deardorff WJ, Barnes DE, Jeon SY, Boscardin WJ, Langa KM, Covinsky KE, Mitchell SL, Whitlock EL, Smith AK, Lee SJ
    JAMA Intern Med, 2022 Nov 1, 182(11): 1161-1170 | PMID: 36156062 | PMCID: PMC9513707
    Citations: 5 | AltScore: 435.19
  10. COVID-19 outbreak in a state prison: a case study on the implementation of key public health recommendations for containment and prevention.
    Duarte C, Cameron DB, Kwan AT, Bertozzi SM, Williams BA, McCoy SI
    BMC Public Health, 2022 May 14, 22(1): 977 | PMID: 35568894 | PMCID: PMC9107313
    Citations: 9 | AltScore: 0.25
  11. The Association Between Epigenetic Clocks and Physical Functioning in Older Women: A 3-Year Follow-up.
    F?hr T, T?rm?kangas T, Lankila H, Viljanen A, Rantanen T, Ollikainen M, Kaprio J, Sillanp?? E
    J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, 2022 Aug 12, 77(8): 1569-1576 | PMID: 34543398 | PMCID: PMC9373966
    Citations: 8 | AltScore: 18.45
  12. N-of-1 trials to facilitate evidence-based deprescribing: Rationale and case study.
    Goyal P, Safford MM, Hilmer SN, Steinman MA, Matlock DD, Maurer MS, Lachs MS, Kronish IM
    Br J Clin Pharmacol, 2022 Oct, 88(10): 4460-4473 | PMID: 35705532 | PMCID: PMC9464693
    Citations: 5 | AltScore: 3.1
  13. Exploring the Dynamics of Week-to-Week Blood Pressure in Nursing Home Residents Before Death.
    Graham LA, Lee SJ, Steinman MA, Peralta CA, Rubinsky AD, Jing B, Fung KZ, Odden MC
    Am J Hypertens, 2022 Jan 5, 35(1): 65-72 | PMID: 34505872 | PMCID: PMC8730483
    Citations: 2 | AltScore: 2.35
  14. Attitudes toward deprescribing among older adults with dementia in the United States.
    Growdon ME, Espejo E, Jing B, Boscardin WJ, Zullo AR, Yaffe K, Boockvar KS, Steinman MA
    J Am Geriatr Soc, 2022 Mar 10, 70(6): 1764-1773 | PMID: 35266141 | PMCID: PMC9177826
    Citations: 7 | AltScore: 111.8
  15. New psychotropic medication use among Medicare beneficiaries with dementia after hospital discharge.
    Growdon ME, Gan S, Yaffe K, Lee AK, Anderson TS, Muench U, Boscardin WJ, Steinman MA
    J Am Geriatr Soc, 2022 Dec 13, 71(4): 1134-1144 | PMID: 36514208 | PMCID: PMC10089969
    Citations: NA | AltScore: 16.85
  16. Hospice Improves Care Quality For Older Adults With Dementia In Their Last Month Of Life.
    Harrison KL, Cenzer I, Ankuda CK, Hunt LJ, Aldridge MD
    Health Aff (Millwood), 2022 Jun, 41(6): 821-830 | PMID: 35666964 | PMCID: PMC9662595
    Citations: 8 | AltScore: 118.44
  17. Functional and clinical needs of older hospice enrollees with coexisting dementia.
    Harrison KL, Cenzer I, Smith AK, Hunt LJ, Kelley AS, Aldridge MD, Covinsky KE
    J Am Geriatr Soc, 2022 Nov 24, 71(3): 785-798 | PMID: 36420734 | PMCID: PMC10023265
    Citations: 1 | AltScore: 30.3
  18. Life expectancy for community-dwelling persons with dementia and severe disability.
    Harrison KL, Ritchie CS, Hunt LJ, Patel K, Boscardin WJ, Yaffe K, Smith AK
    J Am Geriatr Soc, 2022 Mar 31, 70(6): 1807-1815 | PMID: 35357694 | PMCID: PMC9177709
    Citations: 3 | AltScore: 35.25
  19. \It Looks Like You're Making Very Healthy Choices\": Attending to the Lifeworld and Medicine in Photo-Based Talk in Primary Care."
    Ho EY, Leung G, Jih J
    Health Commun, 2022 Jun 1, 38(11): 2387-2398 | PMID: 35642446 | PMCID: PMC9712590
    Citations: NA | AltScore: NA
  20. Time to benefit for stroke reduction after blood pressure treatment in older adults: A meta-analysis.
    Ho VS, Cenzer IS, Nguyen BT, Lee SJ
    J Am Geriatr Soc, 2022 May, 70(5): 1558-1568 | PMID: 35137952 | PMCID: PMC9106841
    Citations: 6 | AltScore: 336.388
  21. Patterns and Predictors of Functional Decline after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation in Older Adults.
    Huang LW, Sheng Y, Andreadis C, Logan AC, Mannis GN, Smith CC, Gaensler KML, Martin TG, Damon LE, Huang CY, Olin RL
    Transplant Cell Ther, 2022 Mar 3, 28(6): 309.e1-309.e9
    pii: S2666-6367(22)00121-X. | PMID: 35247612 | PMCID: PMC9198006
    Citations: NA | AltScore: 4.2
  22. The Epidemiology of Smoking in Older Adults: A National Cohort Study.
    Hunt LJ, Covinsky KE, Cenzer I, Espejo E, Boscardin WJ, Leutwyler H, Lee AK, Cataldo J
    J Gen Intern Med, 2022 Dec 20, 38(7): 1697-1704 | PMID: 36538157 | PMCID: PMC10212889
    Citations: 1 | AltScore: 1.75
  23. A national study of disenrollment from hospice among people with dementia.
    Hunt LJ, Gan S, Boscardin WJ, Yaffe K, Ritchie CS, Aldridge MD, Smith AK
    J Am Geriatr Soc, 2022 Oct, 70(10): 2858-2870 | PMID: 35670444 | PMCID: PMC9588572
    Citations: 4 | AltScore: 31.74
  24. Incidence of potentially disruptive medical and social events in older adults with and without dementia.
    Hunt LJ, Morrison RS, Gan S, Espejo E, Ornstein KA, Boscardin WJ, Smith AK
    J Am Geriatr Soc, 2022 Feb 5, 70(5): 1461-1470 | PMID: 35122662 | PMCID: PMC9106866
    Citations: 2 | AltScore: 27.85
  25. A photo-based communication intervention to promote diet-related discussions among older adults with multi-morbidity.
    Jih J, Nguyen A, Woo J, Tran WC, Wang A, Gonzales N, Fung J, Callejas J, Nguyen TT, Ritchie CS
    J Am Geriatr Soc, 2022 Nov 30, 71(2): 577-587 | PMID: 36450690 | PMCID: PMC9957898
    Citations: NA | AltScore: 5.2
  26. Comparing Machine Learning to Regression Methods for Mortality Prediction Using Veterans Affairs Electronic Health Record Clinical Data.
    Jing B, Boscardin WJ, Deardorff WJ, Jeon SY, Lee AK, Donovan AL, Lee SJ
    Med Care, 2022 Jun 1, 60(6): 470-479 | PMID: 35352701 | PMCID: PMC9106858
    Citations: 2 | AltScore: 12.19
  27. Moving Deprescribing Upstream.
    Keller MS, Vordenberg SE, Steinman MA
    J Gen Intern Med, 2022 Sep, 37(12): 3176-3177 | PMID: 35411528 | PMCID: PMC9485366
    Citations: 1 | AltScore: 24.25
  28. Persistent loneliness due to COVID-19 over 18 months of the pandemic: A prospective cohort study.
    Kotwal AA, Batio S, Wolf MS, Covinsky KE, Yoshino Benavente J, Perissinotto CM, O'Conor RM
    J Am Geriatr Soc, 2022 Dec, 70(12): 3469-3479 | PMID: 36054661 | PMCID: PMC9539351
    Citations: 5 | AltScore: 61.73
  29. A single question assessment of loneliness in older adults during the COVID-19 pandemic: A nationally-representative study.
    Kotwal AA, Cenzer IS, Waite LJ, Smith AK, Perissinotto CM, Hawkley LC
    J Am Geriatr Soc, 2022 May, 70(5): 1342-1345 | PMID: 35141875 | PMCID: PMC9106870
    Citations: 11 | AltScore: 6.5
  30. End-of-life health care use among socially isolated and cognitively impaired older adults.
    Kotwal AA, Cenzer IS, Yaffe K, Perissinotto C, Smith AK
    J Am Geriatr Soc, 2022 Nov 23, 71(3): 880-887 | PMID: 36420540 | PMCID: PMC10023302
    Citations: 1 | AltScore: 30.17
  31. The Impact Of COVID-19 On The Health Of Incarcerated Older Adults In California State Prisons.
    Kwan A, Garcia-Grossman I, Sears D, Bertozzi SM, Williams BA
    Health Aff (Millwood), 2022 Aug, 41(8): 1191-1201 | PMID: 35914202 | PMCID: PMC10165538
    Citations: 1 | AltScore: 36.8
  32. COVID-19 severity and age increase the odds of delirium in hospitalized adults with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection: a cohort study.
    LaHue SC, Escueta DP, Guterman EL, Patel K, Harrison KL, Boscardin WJ, Douglas VC, Newman JC
    BMC Psychiatry, 2022 Feb 28, 22(1): 151 | PMID: 35227231 | PMCID: PMC8883244
    Citations: 4 | AltScore: 15.1
  33. Return to community living and mortality after moving to a long-term care facility: A nationally representative cohort study.
    Lam K, Cenzer I, Covinsky KE
    J Am Geriatr Soc, 2022 Nov 24, 71(2): 569-576 | PMID: 36420717 | PMCID: PMC9957796
    Citations: 1 | AltScore: 18.65
  34. Ensuring Assisted Living Provides the Assistance Residents Need.
    Lam K, Covinsky KE
    JAMA Netw Open, 2022 Sep 1, 5(9): e2233877 | PMID: 36173635 | PMCID: PMC10173950
    Citations: 1 | AltScore: 300.27
  35. More POLST forms are being completed in nursing homes, but is this meaningful?
    Lam K, Haddock L, Yukawa M
    J Am Geriatr Soc, 2022 Jul, 70(7): 1950-1953 | PMID: 35642687 | PMCID: PMC9283298
    Citations: 1 | AltScore: 17.45
  36. Glycemic treatment deintensification practices in nursing home residents with type 2 diabetes.
    Lederle LI, Steinman MA, Jing B, Nguyen B, Lee SJ
    J Am Geriatr Soc, 2022 Mar 23, 70(7): 2019-2028 | PMID: 35318647 | PMCID: PMC9283249
    Citations: 5 | AltScore: 143.93
  37. Predicting Life Expectancy to Target Cancer Screening Using Electronic Health Record Clinical Data.
    Lee AK, Jing B, Jeon SY, Boscardin WJ, Lee SJ
    J Gen Intern Med, 2022 Feb, 37(3): 499-506 | PMID: 34327653 | PMCID: PMC8858374
    Citations: 3 | AltScore: 6.1
  38. Trends in blood pressure diagnosis, treatment, and control among VA nursing home residents, 2007-2018.
    Odden MC, Li Y, Graham LA, Steinman MA, Marcum ZA, Liu CK, Jing B, Fung KZ, Peralta CA, Lee SJ
    J Am Geriatr Soc, 2022 May 7, 70(8): 2280-2290 | PMID: 35524763 | PMCID: PMC9378662
    Citations: 2 | AltScore: 9.75
  39. Long-term functional outcomes and mortality after hospitalization for extracranial hemorrhage.
    Parks AL, Jeon SY, Boscardin WJ, Steinman MA, Smith AK, Covinsky KE, Fang MC, Shah SJ
    J Hosp Med, 2022 Apr, 17(4): 235-242 | PMID: 35535921 | PMCID: PMC9558016
    Citations: NA | AltScore: NA
  40. Addressing suicide risk in patients living with dementia during the COVID-19 pandemic and beyond.
    Portacolone E, Byers A, Halpern J, Barnes DE
    Gerontologist, 2022 Apr 2, 62(7): 956-963
    pii: gnac042. | PMID: 35365827 | PMCID: PMC9372890
    Citations: 3 | AltScore: 12.5
  41. A Geriatric Assessment Intervention to Reduce Treatment Toxicity Among Older Adults With Advanced Lung Cancer: A Subgroup Analysis From a Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial.
    Presley CJ, Mohamed MR, Culakova E, Flannery M, Vibhakar PH, Hoyd R, Amini A, VanderWalde N, Wong ML, Tsubata Y, Spakowicz DJ, Mohile SG
    Front Oncol, 2022, 12: 835582 | PMID: 35433441 | PMCID: PMC9008713
    Citations: 3 | AltScore: 2.35
  42. Prevalence of Potentially Inappropriate Medication Prescribing in US Nursing Homes, 2013-2017.
    Riester MR, Goyal P, Steinman MA, Zhang Y, Rodriguez MF, Paul DR, Zullo AR
    J Gen Intern Med, 2022 Sep 29, 38(6): 1563-1566 | PMID: 36175759 | PMCID: PMC10160255
    Citations: 1 | AltScore: 0.5
  43. Can markers of disease severity improve the predictive power of claims-based multimorbidity indices?
    Rizzo A, Jing B, Boscardin WJ, Shah SJ, Steinman MA
    J Am Geriatr Soc, 2022 Dec 10, 71(3): 845-857 | PMID: 36495264 | PMCID: PMC10023343
    Citations: 1 | AltScore: 21.03
  44. Association of Social Support With Functional Outcomes in Older Adults Who Live Alone.
    Shah SJ, Fang MC, Wannier SR, Steinman MA, Covinsky KE
    JAMA Intern Med, 2022 Jan 1, 182(1): 26-32 | PMID: 34779818 | PMCID: PMC8593829
    Citations: 7 | AltScore: 127.95
  45. Change in four measures of physical function among older adults during lung cancer treatment: A mixed methods cohort study.
    Singhal S, Walter LC, Smith AK, Loh KP, Cohen HJ, Zeng S, Shi Y, Boscardin WJ, Presley CJ, Williams GR, Magnuson A, Mohile SG, Wong ML
    J Geriatr Oncol, 2022 Sep 1, 14(2): 101366
    pii: S1879-4068(22)00206-5. | PMID: 36058839 | PMCID: PMC9974579
    Citations: NA | AltScore: 9.95
  46. Examining the Impact of the Golden Compass Clinical Care Program for Older People with HIV: A Qualitative Study.
    Tan JY, Greene M, Blat C, Albers A, Grochowski J, Oskarsson J, Shiels M, Hsue P, Havlir D, Gandhi M, Myers J
    AIDS Behav, 2022 May, 26(5): 1562-1571 | PMID: 34705153 | PMCID: PMC8548856
    Citations: 4 | AltScore: 1
  47. KIBRA, MTNR1B, and FKBP5 genotypes are associated with decreased odds of incident delirium in elderly post-surgical patients.
    Terrelonge M, LaHue SC, Tang C, Movsesyan I, Pullinger CR, Dubal DB, Leung J, Douglas VC
    Sci Rep, 2022 Jan 11, 12(1): 556 | PMID: 35017578 | PMCID: PMC8752781
    Citations: 3 | AltScore: 0.75
  48. The epidemiology of preexisting geriatric and palliative conditions in older adults with poor prognosis cancers.
    Tsang M, Gan S, Boscardin WJ, Wong ML, Walter LC, Smith AK
    J Am Geriatr Soc, 2022 Dec, 70(12): 3402-3412 | PMID: 36259424 | PMCID: PMC9772051
    Citations: NA | AltScore: 327.99
  49. Changes in older adults' life space during lung cancer treatment: A mixed methods cohort study.
    Wong ML, Shi Y, Smith AK, Miaskowski C, Boscardin WJ, Cohen HJ, Lam V, Mazor M, Metzger L, Presley CJ, Williams GR, Loh KP, Ursem CJ, Friedlander TW, Blakely CM, Gubens MA, Allen G, Shumay D, Walter LC
    J Am Geriatr Soc, 2022 Jan, 70(1): 136-149 | PMID: 34611887 | PMCID: PMC8742783
    Citations: 3 | AltScore: 124.99


Jean Kutner, MD, MPH/MSPH
School of Medicine, University of Colorado
Serving since 2013 (10 years)

Mark S. Lachs, MD
Weil Cornell Medicine
Serving since 2013 (10 years)

Seth Landefeld, MD
School of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham
Serving since 2013 (10 years)

Kenneth Lam, MD, MAS (2022)
  • NIA Administrative Supplement


General Brief Description of Minority Activities:
Not defined.

Minority Trainee(s):
  • Aksharananda Rambachan, MD, MPH, Assistant Professor, Medicine
    "Despite an increased emphasis on identifying pain as the “fifth vital sign,” there are shortcomings in our approach to assessing, documenting, and responding to pain. Cognitive impairment in older persons, drugdrug interactions, patient comorbidities, fall-risk, and frailty all present additional challenges for prescribing clinicians. Furthermore racial, ethnic, cultural, and language-based differences across patients are areas where disparities are present. Studies across various health settings have found that older patients and minority patients are at high risk for underassessment and undertreatment of pain. Pain assessment tools are ubiquitous, given regulatory and hospital level requirements, yet their appropriateness and utility remain understudied in this patient population. Pain is assessed by nursing across various time points using various self-report and behavioral tools. Clinicians often utilize their own individualized bedside approach and review of clinical data in assessing and managing a patient’s pain, disconnected from nursing workflows. There is a paucity of guidelines for inpatient pain management for both acute and chronic conditions and minimal research into best practices for elderly minority patients. We do not know how pain is managed quantitatively across common medical diagnoses for these patient groups, and with regards to the interaction between age, race, ethnicity, and language status."
  • Anna Oh, BSN, MSN, MPH , former VAQS fellow, now nurse scientist at Stanford
    Engagement in meaningful activities – enjoyable physical, leisure, social, spiritual activities related to personal interests and values – gives life identity and purpose, and is therefore beneficial to the emotional and physical well-being of older adults. As older adults age and become more susceptible to disease, disability, and cognitive impairment, the ability to participate and engage in meaningful activities place the older adult at higher risk of loss of identity and well-being. Dr. Oh’s cross-sectional examination published in JAMA IM of meaningful activity engagement in the National Health and Aging Trends Study (NHATS) found functional disability was the leading factor of nonengagement. Yet, diverse racial and ethnic groups of older adults may have varying experiences with meaningful activity engagement over time due to cultural and language barriers as well as limited access to services and resources. Little is known about meaningful activity engagement in diverse groups of older adults from historically disadvantaged backgrounds, its relationship to disability, and barriers and facilitators for engagement, such as social support, neighborhood factors, and socioeconomic and demographic factors. Previous studies have documented concerning racial and ethnic differences in the experience of aging, older Americans and their caregivers in caregiving experiences, access to and use of in-home rehabilitation services, and advance care planning. In addition to reducing racial and ethnic differences and health disparities, culturally-sensitive, community-based interventions have the potential to increase access to high-quality healthcare for diverse older adults. Culturally-sensitive, community-based interventions that include assessments of meaningful activity engagement can guide goals of care conversations, medical treatment recommendations, and target existing services and supports (e.g. home health, hospice, long-term services and supports) for older adults to stay engaged in meaningful activities. The objective of this study is to identify activity engagement in older, community-dwelling African-American/Black, Latinx/Hispanic, Asian, and bi/multiracial NHATS participants before and after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. The data and findings from this research will be a springboard for a K23 award where Dr. Oh will examine longitudinally the barriers and facilitators to staying engaged in meaningful activities. Through support from this award, the Pepper Center is helping to catalyze Dr. Oh’s long-term goal is to become a clinician leader who improves the quality-of-life of diverse, community-dwelling, seriously ill older adults with home-based models of care.
  • Jennifer E. James, PhD, MSW, MS, Assistant Professor, Institute for Health & Aging at UCSF
    Incarceration and the health of currently and formerly incarcerated individuals was highlighted as an important social determinant of health in Healthy People 2020. Individuals with a history of incarceration report more chronic health problems after incarceration than before (Schnittker & John, 2007), in many cases regardless of the length of time served (Schnittker & John, 2007; Massoglia, 2008). Compared to the general population, incarcerated persons are more likely to have high blood pressure, asthma, cancer, arthritis and infectious diseases (Healthy People 2020) and studies have shown that women with a history of incarceration face a greater disease burden than men with a history of incarceration (Healthy People 2020; Covington, 2007). Ninety percent of recently released women have chronic medical, mental health, or substance use disorders, which is significantly higher than the general population (Mallik-Kane & Visher, 2005; Schnittker, Massoglia & Uggen, 2012). Additionally, within the first two weeks after release, recently released individuals have a 12.7 times higher mortality rate than the general population and that relative risk is higher for women than men (Binswanger et al., 2007). Being Black, being a woman, being poor and having a history of incarceration each confer serious health risks (Braithwaite, Treadwell, & Arriola, 2008). The overall goal of this study is to use interviews and ethnographic observation to better understand the intersection of these interconnected forms of risk. Dr. James will use a novel qualitative interview approach called “collective dialogue”, grounded in Black Feminist Epistemology, that engages participants in the analysis of the data they produce with the researcher over the course of open-ended interviews about their lives. This method, which Dr. James developed and piloted in her dissertation, enables her to center the lived experience of older, formerly incarcerated Black women and enables the women to participate in the production of knowledge about themselves. These interviews, combined with ethnographic observations of organizations advocating for the health and welfare of currently and formerly incarcerated women, will produce a multi-faceted and multilayered account of post-incarceration experiences of women with chronic disease and how they access healthcare. Currently, she is continuing to recruit participants for interviews. Her interviews to date have produced incredibly rich data. She is currently working with two research assistants to analyze the data, and have submitted abstracts based on preliminary findings to four conferences, and have been invited to present at two conferences this summer. However, attendance for conferences have been placed on hold due to COVID 19 safety protocols.
  • Linda Park, RN, PhD, FNP, Associate Professor
    UCSF RCMAR (Center for Aging in Diverse Communities or CADC) has been dedicated to eliminating health disparities in minority aging populations. Their goal is to support work that focuses on understanding health disparities and building and testing community-engaged interventions to reduce disparities among older adults. Like the UCSF Pepper Center, one of our most important missions is to train and mentor talented, underrepresented junior investigators to develop independent research careers focused on health disparities and aging issues. During this year, CADC and UCSF Pepper Center have provided joint support for the following project and investigator: Improving Health Disparities by Promoting Physical Activity Among Asian American Older Adults with Cardiovascular Disease: A Pilot Study Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality, affecting 43.7 million older adults age 60 and over. To ameliorate this, cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is a highly effective, Class I level guideline-recommended 12-week group program that offers supervised physical activity (PA) after cardiac events (e.g., myocardial infarction, revascularization, valve replacement). It has been shown to improve physical function and decrease morbidity and mortality in older adults. Thus, maintaining PA after CR is essential in older adults to gain and maintain the critical benefits of improved physical function (balance, gait, strength, and endurance). PA maintenance after CR is also linked to reduced adverse geriatric outcomes such as falls and mobility impairment but thereby increases susceptibility to adverse secondary cardiac events, functional decline, and depression. Although it is estimated that minority individuals from diverse racial/ethnic backgrounds will comprise ~50% of the total U.S. population, minority older adults have more CVD burden than non-Hispanic Whites and have disproportionately lower rates of enrollment and adherence to CR (20% enrollment in Whites vs.8% in non-Whites). Asian Americans (AA) have been identified as a high-risk population for CVD based on genetic predisposition, coronary risk factor profile, and behaviors (e.g., PA and diet). In general, AA are less physically active than non-Hispanic Whites. Specific for CR participation, barriers may include cultural, socioeconomic, and linguistic challenges but it is unknown what the perceived barriers and facilitators are to continue PA behaviors after CR completion. Modifiable targets related to sustained PA may include depression and anxiety and slower self-efficacy, motivation, and social support. Tailored, accessible, and culturally appropriate interventions are urgently needed for AA older adults to promote sustained PA after CR to reduce future cardiac events. The objective of this mixed-methods proposal is to conduct a pilot study that will collect the critical data needed for a clinical trial to promote sustained PA through digital coaching after CR completion with a focus on improving physical function for AA older adults. This pilot work will reduce persistent health disparities that exist for ethnic minorities so we can target modifiable factors for sustained PA after CR. The under lying hypothesis is that there are distinct differences in barriers, facilitators, and preferences for interventions that aim to sustain PA after CR, thus requiring cultural tailoring for AA. My long-term career goal is to become a leading academic investigator who develops and tests behavioral interventions to improve older adults’ health and well-being with CVD. While the COVID-19 pandemic led to delays in the initiation of this project, work on this project has now resumed, and Dr. Park plans to complete the survey distribution and conduct individual interviews by June 2021. Dr. Park and her team are IRB approved to achieve the study aims.

No minority grant information specified.